Monday, July 27, 2009

SISI PSIKOLOGIS DARI KREATIVITAS

DALAM suatu pertemuan rutin, Masyarakat Psikoanalisis di Vienna, pada suatu siang yang cerah di tahun 1911, Alfred Adler yang kala itu menjadi ketua Masyarakat Psikoanalisis Vienna, menyinggung suatu teori mengenai kreativitas kompensasi. Melalui teorinya, Adler menganggap bahwa manusia menghasilkan kesenian, ilmu pengetahuan, dan aspek-aspek lain dari kebudayaan adalah untuk mengimbangi kekurangan mereka sendiri.

Dengan sedikit mereduksi, Adler hendak memperlihatkan bahwa tindakan-tindakan kreatif adalah reaksi dari perasaan inferioritas kita. Hal ini kemudian menjadi bagian dari tradisi-tradisi psikologi awal, yang kerap mengaitkan hasrat untuk mencipta dan kreativitas dengan masalah-masalah psikologi serta kesehatan mental.

Pendekatan reduktif psikologi atas kreativitas terutama karena melihat pribadi-pribadi yang kreatif, sering kali seperti tidak cocok dengan kebudayaan normatif masyarakat mereka. Van Gogh mengalami psikotis, Gauguin menderita schizoid, Edgar Allan Poe kecanduan alkohol, dan Virginia Woolf benar-benar depresi. Mereka adalah sedikit contoh dari seniman yang eksentrik, hingga yang mengalami kegilaan klinis.

Dalam kajian psikologi modern sendiri, ada suatu survei kepribadian terhadap 291 tokoh terkemuka dunia dalam kurun waktu 150 tahun terakhir, yang mencoba memeriksa ada tidaknya hubungan antara keunggulan kreatif dan ketidakstabilan mental. Hasil survei tersebut, yang juga dimuat di The British Journal of Psychiatry (165:1994), sungguh mengejutkan.

Berdasarkan survei dengan catatan medis dan data-data sumber pertama yang dapat dipercaya itu, sekitar 75% seniman, dan bahkan 90% pengarang mengalami ketidakstabilan mental. Sebagian besar tokoh seni itu adalah figur terkenal: Wagner, Monet, Van Gogh, Hemingway, hingga Dostoyevsky.

**

MESKI demikian, beberapa psikolog lainnya, seperti Rollo May, R.D. Laing, dan Danah Zohar, atau psikiater Kay Redfield Jameson, mengembangkan pendekatan psikologi akan kreativitas secara lebih positif. Temuan terpenting dari penelitian-penelitian yang pernah dilakukan oleh pendekatan positif tersebut, adalah fakta bahwa sedikit sekali hubungan antara kreativitas dengan kegilaan jangka panjang. Justru, mereka yang berada di ambang gila, atau sekadar menderita skizotipy, yang cenderung mencapai karya-karya terbaik.

Orang yang menderita skizotipy memiliki gejala antara lain: pengalaman tidak wajar, distraksi ringan, sesat pikir, cenderung impulsif (bertindak atas dasar impuls, meracau, bertingkah laku aneh, berpenampilan ganjil), introvert (tertutup), dan menyendiri, mengalami ideasi magis (kecenderungan untuk berpikir bahwa pikirannya mempunyai kekuatan fisik, dapat menjadi kenyataan, atau menghubungkan kejadian-kejadian yang sebetulnya tidak berhubungan), kerap berfantasi dan tidak dapat membedakannya dengan kenyataan, serta mengalami ambivalensi (ketidakmampuan menata pikiran karena melihat beragam nilai, kemungkinan, atau pilihan).

Menurut Prof. Sutardjo A. Wiramihardja, guru besar Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Padjadjaran, riset skizotipy menunjukkan bahwa derajat kesehatan mental bersifat continuum, dari yang normal, menunjukkan penyimpangan ringan, hingga kegilaan klinis yang berat.

Dan dalam continuum itulah, seperti yang diyakini psikolog William James, seniman kerap memiliki suatu "pintu", suatu ambang bergerak (mobile treshold) yang memungkinkan munculnya kekuatan subliminal yang menguasai keadaan mental mereka.

Salah satu gejala skizotipy, yakni ideasi magis dan fantasi, akan memaksa seniman untuk mengimajinasikan hal-hal yang tidak ada, menciptakan tokoh yang tak pernah ada, membawa mereka pada citra visual yang mengarah pada konsep baru, hingga melihat hal-hal dari sudut yang tidak konvensional.

Dengan demikian, karya-karya terbaik seorang seniman bukan sekadar produk dari gangguan mental, ataupun manifestasi dari perasaan berontak atas keterbatasan dirinya (atau kreativitas kompensasi dalam bahasa psikolog Alfred Adler). Sebaliknya, tindakan kreatif muncul dari intelektualitas yang tinggi, terkait dengan kesehatan emosi yang tanpa kepura-puraan, dan ekspresi individu normal bagi aktualisasi diri mereka saat itu.

Gangguan mental ringan, seperti munculnya gejala-gejala skizotipy, memungkinkan seorang seniman menjadi lebih sensitif, kaya imajinasi, serta lebih orisinal dengan asosiasi yang berbeda dari orang kebanyakan. Dan bagaimana seniman tersebut menyatakan visinya adalah ketika gangguan mental sedang tidak menderanya.

Ketidakstabilan mental, kegilaan eksentrik, terjerumus dalam penggalian eksistensial di kedalaman kepribadian yang tidak disadari ataupun penghancuran tatanan lama untuk mencipta sesuatu yang baru, adalah proses acak, bagian mencerahkan namun sulit dijelaskan dari pembaharuan mental "menjadi autentik". Hal ini berperan dalam memperluas kesadaran seniman, sekaligus membentuk apa yang disebut dengan kecerdasan identitas.

**

BAGI penafsir seni atau sekadar penikmat, model pendekatan apapun yang digunakan untuk menggali dimensi-dimensi mental dari proses kreatif seorang seniman, mungkin tidak akan terlalu penting. Kita hanya akan sepakat bahwa kegilaan yang berguna inilah yang menjadi manifestasi kecerdasan identitas dari seorang seniman.

Kita mungkin akan tetap meyakini, seniman bukan sekadar menyingkap kondisi psikologis dan spiritual yang mendasari hubungan mereka dengan dunia, tapi juga berusaha menggambarkan refleksi emosional dan spiritual masyarakat kebanyakan.

Mereka mengekspresikan apa yang dikatakan Carl Gustav Jung, perintis Psikologi Analitis terkemuka, sebagai "yang tidak disadari kolektif" (unconscious collective). Melalui karyanya, seniman turut menjelaskan apa yang ada dalam diri manusia pada waktu dan budaya tertentu.

Lebih jauh, seniman, menurut John Naisbitt, adalah "lampu penerang dalam tambang gelap". Mereka menangkap sinyal budaya yang pertama, memetakan wilayah baru, mengundang risiko, sesekali memacu akal sehat kita, dan secara ajaib bisa memperkirakan hal-hal yang akan datang. Mereka, meminjam frase Mc Luhan, adalah a dew line, satu garis embun, yang memberi kita suatu "peringatan awal yang jauh" mengenai apa yang akan terjadi dalam kebudayaan kita di masa depan.

Dan pendekatan psikologi turut menambahkan kenyataan mencerahkan ini dengan sedikit hipotetis: inilah kegilaan yang cerdas, kegilaan yang paling berguna, dan terkadang juga berbahaya.***

#Juga Dipublikasikan di Harian Umum PIKIRAN RAKYAT, 28 Juni 2009#

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